- It’s frosty,
- shrinkage cracks,
- the edge ones,
- end faces.
Defects of the structure of wood – inclination of the fibers, roll, traction wood, vulgarity, curls, eyes, pockets, core, double core, shifted core, stepson, dryness, germination, cancer, grind, false core, spotting, internal sapwood, weir.
Tilt of the fibers – deviation of the direction of the fibers from the longitudinal axis of the material (formerly called a slant). It occurs in all breeds. Distinguishes the tangential and radial inclination of the fibers.
Traction wood – wood of some hardwood species (beech, poplar) with changes in structure in the stretched zone of trunks and branches, manifested by a sharp increase in the width of the annual layers. It is found out by hairiness. It is dyed brown under the action of color.
Vileiness – twisted or random arrangement of wood fibers. It is found in materials from the butt of the trunk of all wood species, most often deciduous. It can be wavy and confusing.
Curl – local curvature of annual layers near knots or sprouts. It can be one-sided and through. It reduces the strength of wood.
Eyes – the traces of undeveloped sleeping kidneys in the escape. Diameter does not exceed 5 mm. Sometimes scattered and group. In color: light and dark. Reduces the strength of wood.
Pocket – a cavity inside or between annual layers filled with resin or gum.
Core – narrow central part of the trunk, consisting of loose fabric of brown or lighter color than the surrounding wood. On the ends of the assortment there are spots of about 5mm of various shapes, on the radial surface – as a narrow strip.
A shifted core is an eccentric arrangement of the core, accompanied by vulgarity.
Double core – the presence of 2 or more cores with independent systems of one-year layers surrounded by the periphery of one common system.
Pioneer – the second peak left in growth or dead, passing through the assortment at an acute angle to its longitudinal axis for a considerable length.
Dryness – a section of the trunk surface that has become dead during the growth of the tree as a result of damage.
Sprout – overgrown or overgrown wound.
Cancer – deepening or bloating on the surface of a growing tree as a result of fungi or bacteria.
False core – dark, unevenly colored area, the border of which does not coincide with the annual layers, separated from the sapwood by a dark border.
Wood staining – the coloration of the sapwood sapwood in the form of spots and stripes, close in color to the coloration of the core.
Inner sapwood – adjacent annual layers located in the core zone, their color and properties are close to the color and properties of the sapwood.
Water-layer – areas of the core or ripe wood with a high content of water.